Engineering, procurement, and construction (EPC) contracts are one of the most popular contract types in the large-scale construction industry. Under an EPC contract a contractor is obliged to deliver a complete facility to a developer who need only turn a key to start operating the facility, hence the term “turnkey” construction contracts. The responsibilities of an EPC contractor include engineering and design, procurement of all the necessary equipment and materials required to build the project, and construction of the facility.
Transmission & Distribution (T&D) refers to the different stages of transporting electricity over poles and wires from generators to a home or a business. The main difference between the two is the voltage level at which electricity moves in each stage.
Transmission lines serve to connect power plants to substations, which can run electricity over vast distances at a high voltage, ranging from 69 kV to 765 kV. A unique feature of transmission lines is that they are bi-directional, allowing for a balanced power grid.
Distribution lines have lower voltages, ranging from 4kV to 69kV, and are used to bring electricity from substations to your home or business. The lines are smaller and cover shorter distances. Compared to transmission lines, distribution lines are passive systems, as they are not actively managed by operators or computer programs. Also, since they are traditionally uni-directional in power flow (from high voltage to low voltage), they do not require much maintenance.
Our solar projects convert sunlight into electrical energy most commonly through photovoltaic (PV) panels, which are made up of multiple solar cells. Solar cells are comprised of silicon and are constructed with a positive and negative layer, which together create an electric field. These cells are mounted into frameworks to make PV modules. A collection of modules is a PV panel, and a system of panels is called an array. PV panels capture direct and scattered sunlight and generate direct current (DC) electricity, which is used for battery storage or converted into alternating current (AC) power by an inverter. The AC power goes through a substation to either be transmitted over large distances at high voltages or distributed to your home or business at lower voltages.
A wind turbine turns wind energy into electricity using the aerodynamic force from the rotor blades. When wind flows across a blade, the air pressure on one side of the blade decreases. The difference in air pressure across the two sides of the blade creates both lift and drag. The force of the lift is stronger than the drag, causing the rotor to spin. The rotor connects to the generator, either directly or through a shaft and a series of gears (a gearbox) that speed up the rotation and allow for a physically smaller generator. This translation of aerodynamic force to rotation of a generator creates electricity. After the DC power is harnessed from the wind turbine, it can be used for battery storage or converted to AC electricity for transmission and distribution at a substation.
Battery energy storage systems are rechargeable battery systems that store energy from solar arrays or wind farms and provide that energy to your home or business. Battery storage can increase system efficiency and resilience, as well as improve power quality by matching supply and demand. It can also help smooth out variations in the way solar and wind energy flow on the grid.
Storage facilities differ in both energy capacity, which is the total amount of energy that can be stored, and power capacity, which is the amount of energy that can be released at a given time. Different energy and power capacities of storage can be used to manage different tasks. Short-term storage that lasts just a few minutes will ensure a solar array or wind farm operates smoothly during output fluctuations, while longer-term storage can help provide supply over days or weeks when energy production is low or during a major weather event.
Solar and wind energy processes do not rely on fossil fuels nor do they release emissions that can pollute air or water. Moreover, solar PV panels and wind turbines do not need water to operate or for cooling.
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